Skip to main content

Table 1 Country, place of installation, maximum occupation rate, type and number of attracted species, materials used in the construction, tube length (cm), diameter (mm), and key results of studies that have used hotels to attract or trap bees

From: How effective are artificial nests in attracting bees? A review

Reference Country Place Occupation rate Species Material Length Diameter Key results
(Bosch, 1994) Spain Farm 29% Osmia cornuta Milk cartons 12, 15, 18 8 12-cm straws were less accepted than longer straws.
(Stubbs et al., 1997) USA Farm 30% Osmia Wood 14 8 Osmia populations increased in two of the three fields that had trap-nest blocks provided.
(Wilkaniec and Giejdasz, 2003) Poland Farm 100% Osmia rufa Reed, Plastic 8, 22 5,6,9 All tubes made of straw and printer sheeting were occupied.
(Oliveira and Schlindwein, 2009) Brazil Farm 22% Cenris. analis Cardboard 7.5, 8.5 5,6,7,8,12 Females of Centris analis used only tubes with 6-, 7-, and 8-mm diameters.
(Junqueira et al., 2012) Brazil Farm 21% Carpenter Bees Bamboo 25 14,24 Supplying a bee shelter with a combination of suitably sized empty bamboo stalks can increase the population of actively nesting bees by 200%.
(Fabian et al., 2014) Switzerland Farm 13% 13 bees and wasps Plastic 20 2,10 The most abundant bee species was the Red Mason bee.
(Artz et al., 2014) USA Farm 31% O. lignaria, Apis mellifera Cardboard 15 7.5 The color of the nest box that surrounds the bee hotels affect its attractiveness.
(McCallum et al., 2018) Canada Farm 71% 61 O. tersula, 34 Megachile, 10 wasps Wood, milk carton 8 7,9 Bees nested more in tubes of milk cartons (71%) than wooden nests.
(dos Santos et al., 2020) Brazil Farm 20% Megachile zaptlana Wood 7, 10 4,5,6,8,12 Bees mostly occupied tubes having a 6-mm diameter.
(Martínez-Núñez et al., 2020) Spain Farm 33% Solitary bees Bamboo, Reed 6, 12, 20 4,7,12 Organic fields had higher colonization rates than their control farms.
(Wilson et al., 2020a) USA Farm 100% Megachile rotundata Plastic 7.8 7 Cavity temperature varied by the direction the cavity faced and by the position of the cavity within the nest box.
(Graham et al., 2020) Canada Farm 11% Megachile pugnata, Osmia caerulescens Reed 8 6 We found significantly greater nesting at farms with wildflower plantings.
(Eeraerts, 2020) Belgium Farm 71% Mason bee Wood, cardboard 13, 12 8 Cardboard tubes reduce the infestation rate of mites by 81.8%.
(Barthell et al., 1998) USA Mixed natural 42% Bees, wasps, and exotic Cardboard 10 5,6.5,8 Native species never accounted for >25% of all occupied nesting cavities of either monitoring period of the study.
(Armbrust, 2004) USA Mountain 56% Megachilidae Wood 1.4 8 The nesting rate changed significantly according to the season.
(Jenkins and Matthews, 2004) USA Forest 34.7% Aculeate Hymenoptera Wood 8 6.4,9.5,12.7 Bees (Osmia. albiventris and Megachile. frigida) nested early in the season (April–May).
(Buschini, 2006) Brazil Forest, Swamp 20% Megachilidae, Apidae Wood 8 7,10,13 Swamp habitat yielded the greatest abundance and diversity of bee species.
(Kamke et al., 2008) Brazil Forest 25% Eufriesea smaragdina Bamboo 7, 9, 20 5,7,10,25 The activity of Eufriesea smaragdina bees was seasonal.
(Taki et al., 2008) Canada Forest 35% 12 wasps Milk carton 15 3,5,7,9 The artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps.
(Guisse and Miller, 2011) USA Forest 3.2% Osmia lignaria Cardboard 14 7 Nest number per site was positively correlated with proximity to water, but negatively with elevation
(Dorado et al., 2011) Argentina Pasture 42% 7 solitary bees Wood 15 5,8 Trap nest sampling was good for estimating rare species degree.
(Torretta et al., 2014) Argentina Forest 7% Megachlie catamarcensis Wood - - Megachile catamarcensis uses petals and/or leaf pieces and mud as nest materials.
(Westerfelt et al., 2015) Sweden Forest 30% Bees, Wasp Wood 4.5, 6.5, 8 3,5,7,10 The hole diameter was the most important factor explaining the occupation of a certain aculeate species.
(Peralta et al., 2017) Argentina Pasture 14% Wood-nesting bees Wood 15, 28 5,8,11 Trap nests contained pollen from forty five plant species
(Iantas et al., 2017) Brazil Forest and farm 73% 6 bees, 12 wasp (91%) Wood 8 5,7,10,13 The grape organic fields presented the highest number of nests.
(Rebouças et al., 2018) Brazil Forest 28% 5 bees Cardboard; Bamboo 5.8, 10.5, 22 6,8,16 Large straws were significantly more occupied than small straws.
(Guimaraes-Brasil et al., 2020) Brazil Forest 18% 6 Apidae, Megachilidae Bamboo, Cardboard 20 3,5 Nesting preference was observed for certain types of substrates with bamboo internodes being preferred by bees to build their nests.
(Araújo et al., 2020) Brazil Forest, Pasture 16.7% 14 Solitary bees, 26 wasps Wood 10 8,12,16,20 All types of reforestation studied were successful in maintaining a greater diversity of bees and wasps.
(Wilson et al., 2020b) Australia Forests and orchards 36% 13 bees; 28 wasps (74%) Wood 10,15 6,8 More species of bees and wasps used hotels in the wet season (spring-summer).
(Gaston et al., 2005) UK Urban 45% Solitary bees Bamboo 4, 9, 10, 11 4,6,8,10 Bamboo sections and 4mm holes in the wooden blocks were used in more than half of the gardens.
(Loyola and Martins, 2011) Brazil Urban forest 16% 7 bees (25%); 4 wasps (75%) Wood 11 6,9,12 Increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following an increase in sampling unit size (25, 100, and 400 m2).
(Alvarez et al., 2012) Argentina Urban 37% Megachlie concinna Wood 6 4,5,6 Megachlie concinna showed a marked preference for cavities of 6 and 5-mm diameter with 88.2 % compared with only 11.8% of 4 mm.
(MacIvor and Packer, 2015) Canada Urban 75% 31 Megachildae, Apidae Cardboard 15 3,5,7 Native wasps were significantly more abundant than both native and introduced bees and occupied almost 3/4 of all bee hotels each year
(von Königslöw et al., 2019) Germany Urban 31% 22 Bees (49%), 6 Wasps Bamboo, Reed 5, 8, 13, 20 4,6,8,9 Cavities with diameters between 4 and 8 mm were occupied most often.
(Geslin et al., 2020) France Urban 57% Megachile sculpturalis, Osmia Trunk, Bamboo 20 6,8,10,12 The most abundant species that emerged from bee hotels was the exotic bee species Megachile sculpturalis.
(Boff and Friedel, 2020) Brazil Urban 7% Centris analis Wood 12 6,8 Females preferred to nest in painted nests compared to unpainted nests, with blue nests being the most occupied ones.