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Table 3 Qualitative anatomical traits of shrubs and grass in Sempu Island, Indonesia

From: Comparison of ecophysiological and leaf anatomical traits of native and invasive plant species

Anatomical traits Grass Shrubs
Thuarea involuta Imperata cylindrica Ischaemum muticum Wollastonia biflora Lantana camara Chromolaena odorata Phempis acidula Caeseria flavovirens
Leaf midrib shape Flat Conical, prominent Rounded Rounded Rounded Rounded Rounded Rounded
Trichome Long, unicellular Short, unicellular Short, unicellular Long, unicellular Dense, long, multicellular Long, multicellular Short, unicellular Long, unicellular
Bulliform cells Developed Highly developed Highly developed Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Number of palisade layers Absent Absent Absent 3–4 Two 1–2 4–5 2–3
Number of spongy mesophyll layers Absent Absent Absent 8–9 4–5 6–7 5–7 4–5
Total arch number of vascular bundle 36–40 42–45 27–44 Unobserved Unobserved Unobserved Unobserved Unobserved
Sclerenchyma of vascular bundle Single layer Many layers 3–4 layers Few layers Absent Absent Absent 2–3 layers
Sclerenchyma of midrib Absent 12–15 layers 3 layers Few layers Absent Absent Absent 2–3 layers
Sclerenchymatous cells in upper leaf Absent 3 layers Single layer Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Sclerenchymatous epidermal layers Discontinuous Continuous Discontinuous Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Bundle sheath of midrib Highly developed Highly developed Developed Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Bundle sheath of veins Well developed Well developed Developed Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Number of bundle sheath cells in midrib 13–14 cells 19–22 cells 13–15 cells Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Number of bundle sheath cells in veins 4–9 cells 4–13 cells 4–9 cells Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent