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Table 1 General body size and morphological characteristics describing age-sex category of geladas (Dunbar and Dunbar 1975; Mori et al. 1999; Beehner et al. 2008)

From: Population size, group and age structure of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in escarpments of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia: implication for conservation

Age-sex category Characteristics
Adult male Larger in size and about twice that of the adult females, thick golden hairy cape receded back to shoulders, hair dull in color and uneven in places, the cheek tufts receded back to chin line, the ears somewhat visible to highly visible, hairless hourglass-shaped red area of the skin located on the chest is bright red and surrounded by white hair
Adult female Smaller than the adult males, lack cape, more uniform in pelage color, hairless hourglass-shaped red area of the skin located on the chest is surrounded by pearl-like knobs of skin, the skin of the neck and chest pale pink surrounded by vesicles that swell to indicate periovulatory period, vesicles present on the inner thighs and paracallosal skin
Sub-adult male Similar in size to adult females with initial development of manes, cape hair light in color, extending just past the shoulders, the cheek tufts present but not extending below the chin, the ears highly visible, surrounding fur around the chest patch gray-brown in color.
Sub-adult female Smaller in size than the adult female and sub-adult male, the skin light pelage black