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Table 1 Canopy closure and vegetation structure of wet meadow (WM), young forest (YF), and mature forest (MF) in abandoned rice paddies

From: Floristic composition and species richness of soil seed bank in three abandoned rice paddies along a seral gradient in Gwangneung Forest Biosphere Reserve, South Korea

Structural variable WM YF MF
Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE
Canopy closure (%) 73 ± 4 98 ± 2
Stem density (stems ha−1)
Quercus aliena 60 ± 27
Q. serrata 60 ± 43
Salix spp. 1280 ± 146 180 ± 38
Alnus japonica 213 + 32 80 ± 36
Acer tataricum 827 ± 65 360 ± 73
 Others 107 ± 19 2170 ± 703
 Total 3387 + 114 2760 ± 703
Basal area (m2 ha−1)
Quercus aliena 6.2 ± 0.4
Q. serrata 2.1 ± 1.9
Salix spp. 8.0 ± 2.5 8.5 ± 2.9
Alnus japonica 3.4 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 1.0
Acer tataricum 7.4 ± 2.8 4.7 + 1.0
 Others <  1.0 4.5 ± 1.7
 Total 18.8 + 3.1 22.6 + 2.6