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Table 1 Estimates of the edge effect distance and approximate 95% confidence intervals (CI) for abiotic and biotic factors (r 2 > 0.6)

From: Edge effects confirmed at the clear-cut area of Korean red pine forest in Uljin, eastern Korea

   Interior (m)
(±95% CI)
Exterior (m)
(±95% CI)
Edge effect distance (m)
Abiotic factors Air humidity −13.6(±4.7) −1.6(±3.2) 12.0
Soil temperature 7.6(±6.8) 15.8(±6.7) 8.2
Canopy openness −5.5(±1.4) 11.3(±1.2) 16.8
Transmitted light −4.7(±1.5) 12.1(±1.6) 16.8
Total nitrogen −10.0(±53.7) 21.4(±7.5) 31.4
K+ −14.1(±43.0) 14(±10.8) 28.1
Na+ −4.4(±3.1) 4.0(±2.8) 8.4
Ca2+ 2.5(±32.1) 20.0(±7.0) 17.5
Mg2+ −12.9(±20.9) 20.1(±8.8) 33.0
Biotic factors Species diversity 8.2(±14.4) 23(±16.9) 14.8
Species evenness 7.8(±26.9) 22.9(±23.3) 15.1
Species richness −3.2(±10.6) 3.6(±14.3) 6.8
Tree species in herbal layer −7.6(±8.4) 21.9(±4.2) 29.5
Shrub species in herbal layer −5.5(±29.7) 12(±7.8) 17.5
Total vegetation coverage in herbal layer −11.9(±13.0) −1.4(±4.8) 10.5