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Table 3 Selection of reproductive modes according to light intensity

From: The optimal balance between sexual and asexual reproduction in variable environments: a systematic review

Species Life historical strategy Response of reproductive propagules according to light intensity (when light intensity is increased) Estimates by plant size covariance Main habitat References
   Sexual propagules Asexual propagules    
Aster acuminatus Pseudoannual Increased N.S Not used Open and slightly disturbed sites such as tree falls, abandoned logging roads, or other small clearings within the forest (Loehle 1987; Pitelka et al. 1980)
Zamai skinneri Perennial plant Increased   Not used Shaded understory of a tropical rain forest (Clark and Clark 1987)
Silene latifolia Perennial plant N.S   Not used Open disturbed habitats like fallow fields, field margins, and roadsides (Gehring and Linhart 1993)
Sanguinaria canadensis Perennial plant N.S Increased Not used Moist temperate forest understory (Marino et al. 1997)
Circaea lutetiana Pseudoannual N.S Increased Not used The darkest spots on the forest floor. (Verburg and During 1998)
Uvularia perfoliata Pseudoannual 1. Flowering individual: occurred    Temperate deciduous woodland (Kudoh et al. 1999)
2. Clonal diversities: increased
Astrocaryum urostachys Perennial plant Increase N.S Not used (seeds: positively correlated with plant size) Riversides (Svenning 2000)
Phytelephas tenuicaulis Perennial plant N.S N.S Not used (seeds: positively correlated with plant size) Forest (Svenning 2000)
Geonoma cf. aspidiifolia Perennial plant N.S 1. Increased (in case the genet had many large ramets) Not used (seeds: positively correlated with plant size,
clonal: positively correlated with plant size)
Forest (Svenning 2000)
2. Decrease (in case the genet had few large ramets)
Cyperus esculentus Pseudoannual Increased N.S Not used Moist fields, in heavily irrigated crops, along riverbanks, and roadsides, and in ditches (Li et al. 2001a)
Ligularia virgaurea Perennial plant   Decreased Not used (clonal: positively correlated with plant size) Alpine grasslands (Wang et al. 2008)
Smilacina japonica Perennial plant Increased   Not used Deciduous forests (Ida and Kudo 2009)
Cardamine leucantha Pseudoannual Increased   Not used Deciduous forests (Ida and Kudo 2009)
Iris japonica Perennial plant Increased 1. Allocation of coarse rhizome, fine rhizome, and new ramets biomass: N.S Not used Forest understory, forest gap, forest edge, and moist grassland (Wang et al. 2013)
2. The number of daughter ramets : Decreased
Dichanthelium clandestinum Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy N.S (CH mass/CL mass: different among populations) N.S Not used Open or frequently disturbed and early successional habitats (Bell and Quinn 1987; Cheplick 2007)
Calathea micans Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Lowland tropical rain forests (Corff 1993)
Viola pubescens Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Deciduous forests (Culley 2002)
Impatiens pallida Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Moist forest (Schemske 1978)
Impatiens biflora Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Adjoining lakes or rivers (Schemske 1978)
Impatiens capensis Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy 1. Increased (no covariates) N.S Used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Floodplains (Waller 1980)
2. Increased (with covariates)
Impatiens noli-tangere Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Wet areas along forest margins, stream margins, and roadsides (Masuda and Yahara 1994)
Microstegium vimineum Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Decreased (CH mass/CL mass: Decreased)   Used Beneath the completely closed, shady forest interior, and along the periphery of the forest (Cheplick 2005, 2007)
Amphicarpaea bracteata Amphicarpic annual plant Increased   Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: positively correlated with plant size, not in 1983) Moist woods (Trapp and Hendrix, 1988)
Polygonum thunbergii Amphicarpic annual plant Increased N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Riversides (Kawano et al. 1990)
  1. CH chasmogamy, CL cleistogamy, N.S not significantly different