Skip to main content

Table 2 Selection of reproductive modes according to soil water level

From: The optimal balance between sexual and asexual reproduction in variable environments: a systematic review

Species Life historical strategy Response of reproductive propagules according to soil water level (when soil water lever is increased) Estimates by plant size covariance Main habitat References
   Sexual propagules Asexual propagules    
Silene latifolia Perennial plant Increased   Not used Open disturbed habitats like fallow fields, field margins, and roadsides (Gehring and Linhart 1993)
Cyperus esculentus Pseudoannual Decreased Increased (But not one clone) Not used Moist fields, in heavily irrigated crops, along riverbanks and roadsides, and in ditches (Li et al. 2001b)
Lythrum salicaria Perennial plant Decreased   Not used Wetlands (Mal and Lovett-Doust 2005)
B. carinatus Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Forest (Harlan 1945)
Stipa leucotrich Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Not used Grasslands, prairies, and brushy areas (Brown 1952)
Dichanthelium clandestinum Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy N.S (CH mass/CL mass: increased) Decreased (But one population on one variable: N.S) Not used Open or frequently disturbed and early successional habitats (Bell and Quinn 1987; Cheplick 2007)
Calathea micans Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy (Many rainfall): increased (Many rainfall): N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Lowland tropical rain forests (Corff 1993)
Bromus unioloides Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased (when only short photoperiods)   Statistical method not reported Prairie (Langer and Wilson 1965)
Impatiens capensis Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased (not with covariates) N.S Used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Floodplains (Waller 1980)
N.S (with covariates)
Collomia grandiflora Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased Decreased Used Disturbed and open sites within or immediately adjacent to forest and shrub communities. (Minter and Lord 1983; Wilken 1982)
Gymnarrhena micrantha Amphicarpic annual plant (Many rainfall): increased (Low soil moisture): increased Statistical method not reported Steppe and desert regions (Koller and Roth 1964)
Amphicarpaea bracteata L. Amphicarpic annual plant (Many rainfall): N.S (Many rainfall): increased Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: positively correlated with plant size, not in 1983) Moist woods (Trapp and Hendrix 1988)
Polygonum thunbergii Amphicarpic annual plant N.S N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Riversides (Kawano et al. 1990)
Commelina benghalensis Amphicarpic annual plant More increased Less increased Not used The ditch-banks at the field margins and low areas within a field (Webster and Grey 2008)
  1. CH chasmogamy, CL cleistogamy, N.S not significantly different