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Table 1 Selection of reproductive modes according to soil nutrients level

From: The optimal balance between sexual and asexual reproduction in variable environments: a systematic review

Species Life historical strategy Response of reproductive propagules according to soil nutrient level (when soil nutrients lever are increased) Estimates by plant size covariance Main habitat References
   Sexual propagules Asexual propagules    
Tussilago farfara Perennial plant N.S Decreased Not used Snow-patch in sand dune (Loehle 1987; Ogden 1974)
Chamaenerion angustifolium Perennial plant Increased (But one variable: N.S) Decreased Not used Open and semi-open habitats of the boreal forest (Loehle 1987; van Andel and Vera 1977)
Silene latifolia Poiret Perennial plant (Nitrogen addition): increased   Not used Open disturbed habitats like fallow fields, field margins, and roadsides (Gehring and Linhart 1993)
(Phosphorus addition): N.S
(Potassium addition): increased
Sanguinaria canadensis Perennial plant N.S (In the potting and the reciprocal transplant study): increased Not used Moist temperate forest understory (Marino et al. 1997)
(In the permanent plot experiments): N.S
Allium vineale Perennial plant   Increased (Only three of the 16 genotypes, but the others: N.S) Not used Roadsides and highly fertilized agricultural fields (Ronsheim and Bever 2000)
Leymus chinensis Perennial plant (Nitrogen addition): decreased (Nitrogen addition): increased (But one variable: N.S) Not used Steppe zone (Bai et al. 2009)
Penthorum sedoides Perennial plant Decreased (Only in 2007, but in 2004: N.S) Increased Used Ditches and near steams (Nicholls 2011)
Trapella sinensis Perennial plant Decreased N.S Not used 50-cm water depth in rich sediment. (Liu et al. 2013)
Calathea micans Perennial plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Increased N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Lowland tropical rain forests (Corff 1993)
Impatiens capensis Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy N.S N.S Used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Floodplains (Waller 1980)
Triplasis purpurea Annual plants with chasmogamy and cleistogamy Upper nodes (CH spikelets and some CL spikelets): more increase (CH mass/CL mass: N.S) Lower nodes (the other CL spikelets): Less increase Not used Coastal dune (Cheplick 1996, 2007)
Emex spinosa Amphicarpic annual plant (High nitrogen): increased (High nitrogen): N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Semi-arid region, roadside, vineyards, cereal crops, and pastures (Weiss 1980)
Amphicarpum purshii Amphicarpic annual plant CH mass/CL mass: N.S   Not used (CH: independent of plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Disturbed habitats on the coastal plain (Cheplick 1989, 2007)
Polygonum thunbergii Amphicarpic annual plant (High nitrogen): N.S (High nitrogen): N.S Not used (CH: positively correlated with plant size) Riversides (Kawano et al. 1990)
Emex spinosa Amphicarpic annual plant Increased (CH mass/CL mass: increased) Decreased Used (CH: positively correlated with plant size, CL: independent of plant size) Semi-arid region, roadside, vineyards, cereal crops and pastures (Sadeh et al. 2009)
Persicaria thunbergii Amphicarpic annual plant 1. CH mass: increase N.S Not used Riparian zones and lakesides (Kim et al. 2016)
2. CH number: decrease
  1. CH chasmogamy, CL cleistogamy, N.S not significantly different